In Italian, most verbs end in a common pattern, such as -are, -ere, and -ire.These are the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively. ), To smell something: Sento l’odore di aglio. Ciao, this is a sample video using Joytan. If you want to have a conversation in Italian but you’re afraid you don’t have the words to do it, just start talking about food. Which verb. This can seem shockingly unfair. Let's talk about irregular verbs! https://vaporettoitaliano.com/the-most-common-italian-regular-verbs Italian verbs conjugation. alzarsi . With the reflexive verbs the total reaches more than 20,000 verbs. Use the time these verbs save you to make a study schedule and learn a new verb everyday. October 30, 2016. Sentire is the king of the sensory verbs and literally means “to sense” (although it’s usually used as “to hear”). Ci vuole tre ore per andare a Roma. The subject pronoun loro (they) has been dropped because the -ano ending of the verb indicates the person. kunkal June 26, 2019 November 5, 2020 Courses. Learning Italian verbs is not something you can do just staring at a long list of words. In regular -are verbs, the person, or subject is indicated by the ending, which is added to the stem. Verbs are a fundamental part of every language. There are plenty of reflexive verbs in Italian. The most common verbs of the third conjugation having irregularities in the formation of verb tenses are: apparire, aprire, dire, morire, offrire, salire, udire, uscire, venire. Irregular verbs in the imperfect indicative. (Do you eat well in that restaurant? After learning these verbs and learning how to use them in a sentence will make your Italian sound more fluent, natural and rich. Verbs are a fundamental … Io mi alzo presto ogni giorno. Let us know if have doubt and above all your results! Irregular verbs in the imperfect indicative. The Italian subject pronouns have been left off, because you wouldn’t use them in spoken Italian. Our visual method lets you learn Italian 10x faster than other students. (I know how to swim well, but I don’t know how to speak French.). Fa bel tempo. Now let’s look at how the same verb changes when we switch to a different tense. Luckily, in regular Italian verbs, the same endings are almost always used to denote each person regardless of the verb (in other words, the ending -o denotes the first person singular, the ending -i denotes the second person singular and so on). This is a list of the 1,000 most commonly spoken Italian words. Thanks for subscribing! For a full guide to present-tense regular conjugations, check out this article. Please check your email for further instructions. ), Saying if something fits: Non ci sta in macchina. This can really help stretch a limited vocabulary. Once you’re able to express who you are, your abilities, wants and needs, it’s time to start branching out to the world around you. University Centre City, You have to memorize your verbs, but if you’re going to take the plunge, you might as well learn the verbs that are going to take you the furthest. It’s good! (It’s difficult to make decisions!). Italian irregular verbs in the future simple tense. The 2 Italian Auxiliaries Before we dive into the full list of most common Italian verbs, let’s take a good look at the Italian auxiliaries, essere (“to … Marso always falls asleep in front of the TV. ), Saying how you feel emotionally (with mi again): Mi sento felice. Here you will find the MOST COMMON REGULAR VERBS IN ITALIAN. DOWNLOAD THE FULL PACKAGE IN ONE CLICK: 100 ITALIAN VOCABULARY LISTS _ ENGLISH ITALIAN […] You can just use the verb itself to denote the person. Ascoltare is the close friend of sentire, but it’s easier to start with because it’s regular and much more straightforward. To know more about Top 100 Italian Adjectives, click here. Here are just a few ways you can use fare to enrich your speaking practice: Saying what you do for work: Faccio professore d’inglese. You’ll probably need this verb a lot in the beginning of your Italian journey to help people understand your level of Italian, what language(s) you speak and to ask others to speak slower or more clearly to help you understand. You can download Joytan for free from our website. This is the best video to get started with Italian language https://goo.gl/ctThHM Click here to learn Italian twice as fast with FREE PDF! 1,000 Most Common Italian words = 85%+ of comprehension A study done on the language learning revealed that: Studying the first 1000 most frequently used words in the language will familiarize you with 76.0% of all vocabulary in non-fiction literature, 79.6% of all vocabulary in fiction literature, and 87.8% of vocabulary in oral speech . (Listen up! The 1000-word list provided here is a standard that doesn’t fit everyone’s need, but it’s still a starting point to further your studies depending on your interests. With lower course fees and living costs, your degree is closer than you think. Italian Verb to Be. We also participate in other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. Start using Fluent on the website, or better yet, download the app from iTunes or the Play store. Try to learn a new language with Vocapp and different types of verbs , you will find as well some examples of the basic verbs in English to Italian in useful phrases . Verbs of the first conjugation end in -are and are the most common verbs in Italian. I’ll put on a jacket. Verbs in Italian change depending on the person and the tense. (It’s hot today! (Taste the soup. In Italian, most verbs end in a common pattern, such as -are, -ere, and -ire. Click here to get a copy. The best part? Once you’ve got these down, explore more uses of fare to beef up your vocabulary without having to amass new verbs. ), Saying what’s about to happen: Marco sta per arrivare. The course contains. Learn Italian Vocabulary 5 Common Italian Irregular Verbs. "* It’s the most common verb in the Italian language, used to describe many aspects of being: 1) Names and professions As an example, let’s take a look at the regular verb mangiare (to eat) in the present tense: 3rd person singular: lui/lei mangia (he/she eats), 2nd person plural: voi mangiate (you [all] eat), 3rd person plural: loro mangiano (they eat). Today we'll be covering Avere (to have), Essere (to be), Fare (to do/to make), Volere … October 30, 2016. Let’s take a look at some of them and their practical use in a sentence: Reflexive verb: Example: addormentarsi. (They made their beds this morning.). By contrast, in English, the verb “to stay” is only used to describe your location. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc, or its affiliates. Essere – To be — Sono – I … This could make studying Italian verbs easier: once you learn how to conjugate a couple of -are verbs, you have mastered hundreds of them. The 100 most popular Italian verbs. Attach it to any question word and you can find out pretty much anything you want about a particular thing or person. Most common Italian reflexive verbs. I haven't covered much of these before in my videos or blog posts, but that's going to be changing today! I get up early every day. Here are some useful phrases to memorize: Non parlo bene in italiano. Besides we suggest you to take a look at our video about 9 most difficult tongue-twisters in Italian to … Don't go away to university... let the university come to you! Here are some other fun ways to use prendere: To pick up: Prendi quella penna! ), Talking about the weather: Fa caldo oggi! Now you’ve got the gist of how regular Italian verbs change depending on person and tense. Since Italian verbs are classified in different ways, it may be easier to plan your study method following a proper scheme. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. Start studying Most Common Italian Verbs. Tap on any word to instantly see an image, in-context definition, example sentences and other videos in which the word is used. In other words, where and why you need to speak, hear, read, or write in Italian. ), Quale piatti tipici si mangia qua? PRESENTE. Unfortunately, no there isn’t. 5 Common Italian Irregular Verbs. Irregular Italian verbs still feature changes at the end of the verb, but the root may change as well. This is a simple way to turn your vocabulary into real Italian in seconds flat. Italian verbs ending in the infinitive with - IRE: Regular verbs have always the same stem, but most of the Italian verbs are irregular, which means that they use more stems, according to their Latin origin.For ex. That’s exactly what you’ll find in our list below. (I see the castle! There are some words, adverbs or expressions, that you can use when saying something in the passato prossimo in Italian. ), Saying how long something takes (add the pronoun ci [it] before the verb): Ci vuole due minuti in microonde. Like essere, this verb can also be used to describe a state of being. Below some common irregular verbs are conjugated in all their forms: 1. Mettere functions much like “put” in English. In Italian the future is a simple tense, you do not need an auxiliary as in English (will-shall).. To form the regular futuro semplice add to the stem of the verbs the appropriate endings.. Ideal to help you boost your Italian vocabulary! ), Parliamo in italiano. È buona! sono (I am) sei (you are) è (he/she/it is) siamo (we are) siete (you [all] are) … Thomas Capobianco. Whether your vocabulary is large or small, these verbs will allow you to say a lot with a little. If you’ve studied any Italian, you’re sure to have come into contact with this verb, but if not, now’s the perfect time to start. the verb andare (to go) has the following stems: and-, v-, vad-. Let's talk about irregular verbs! Commonly Used Words © 2020. ), Vedi il gatto? Ideal to help you boost your Italian vocabulary! This grammar guide from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provides conjugations for many other tenses. Consult conjugation models, verbs endings, irregular verbs and see their translation. Thomas Capobianco. For example: Mangiano al ristorante. Learning them will allow you to hold a proper conversation in Italian! All rights reserved. (I don’t feel well. Italian irregulars throw a wrench into the whole mix, making them worthy of a closer look. Before you know it, you won’t need to follow shortcuts anymore. It’s funny!). Next time you say goodbye in Italian, instead of saying arrivederci (goodbye), try saying ci sentiamo! Italians love to talk about food, and they barely go a day without some conversation about gamberi (shrimp), bistecche (steaks) or pasta al forno (lasagna). (The courses are difficult.). You can use it to mean “take,” but that wouldn’t be taking full advantage of its capabilities. To master Italian verbs, you cannot just know them by heart. PASSATO PROSSIMO . The only catch is that you have to put the time in, and you have to do it right! Dovere is yet another auxiliary verb and its benefit is similar to those of potere and volere. These verbs have the strength to turn even the weakest vocabularies into conversational Italian. Essentially, this means that once you learn to conjugate avere, you’ll know the past tense of almost all the verbs in Italian! Enroll on course for $9.97. These are the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively. The most common Italian words used in Italian are not the same for everyone. Have you ever heard verbs like ENTRARE, … Irregular verbs in the present simple tense. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons, as you can see here: FluentU helps you get comfortable with everyday Italian by combining all the benefits of complete immersion and native-level conversations with interactive subtitles. This list of essential Italian verbs will let you wield your Italian vocabulary in ways you never thought possible. We saw the many uses of stare above, so we won’t go into too much detail on this verb. For these, the verb phrases listed below are among the most commonly used. Still, you will need to familiarise yourself with the indefinite moods (modi infiniti). A list of common Italian verbs can be very useful if you are learning Italian, as they are essential in order to formulate sentences and express yourself.Italian verbs can be divided into three groups, depending on the last syllable of the infinitive verb ‘-are’, ‘-ere’ or ‘-ire’ and can be regular or irregular. Plus, it’ll tell you exactly when it’s time for review. (talk to you soon!). MODO IMPERATIVO. Talk about a shortcut! The imperativo (imperative) is the command form of the verb and is used to … Others are beautiful in their simplicity and are easy to pick up and use right away. For example, if someone asks, “how are you?” in Italian, they say “come stai?” and not “come sei?” The appropriate response would be “sto bene” (“I’m fine”), not “sono bene.”. Sentire is a great verb for expressing lots of things with little effort, but it can also be tough keeping all its meanings straight. delicious, authentic conversations of Italy, grammar guide from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, incorporate these verbs into your vocabulary, like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks, download the app from iTunes or the Play store. Here’s a complete list of the most common and useful verbs in Italian with their translation in English. You’ll first use this verb to talk about what you can hear with your ears, but once you’re comfortable with that, you can start exploring some other ways to express your senses with this versatile verb. Essere is one of two Italian verbs that can mean "to be. Conjugations of the verb -essere (to be) – Compound Tenses, Conjugations of the verb -avere (to have), Conjugations of the verb -avere (to have) – Compound Tenses. If you can’t get enough grammar hacks, FluentU is a quick, entertaining way to incorporate these verbs into your vocabulary. (Download). Mi prendi da scuola alle 15:00? They refer to the attitude of the speaker toward the action he or she is describing: using a certain definite mood can change orders into a request, or even into future actions. These are the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively. To use an -are verb, first, you remove the letters – are from the infinitive, which leaves you with the … Start studying Most Common Italian Verbs. (The cake tastes like honey. A list of 100 common regular first conjugation verbs: Italian: English: abitare aiutare amare ascoltare aspettare baciare bastare camminare cantare causare cenare chiamare cominciare conservare considerare consigliare costare controllare crollare cucinare curare desiderare dimenticare disegnare disturbare October 30, 2016. Learn most common regular italian verbs with free interactive flashcards. Che bello! Still, some very common verbs in Italian are irregular verbs, which means they do not exactly follow these rules. In Italian, you don’t “have” a coffee, you “take” a coffee. In your home country, there are some expressions that are very common, and people use them every day. The verbs … (What music do you listen to? No matter what language you speak you will almost always find this word in a majority of the sentences. Don’t be afraid to use parlare to tell others to change the way they speak. (Marco is taking Mario’s place in the show. Notice how each verb ending changes for each person. ), Describing what something tastes like: La torta sa di miele. In regular -are verbs, the person, or subject is indicated by the ending, which is added to the stem. Vedo il castello! ), To take the place of something: Marco prende il posto di Mario nello spettacolo. 5 Common Italian Irregular Verbs. Number Italian in English 1 come as 2 io I 3 il suo his 4 che that 5 lui he 6 era was 7 per for 8 su on 9 sono are 10 con with […] This verb, which translates as both “make” and “do,” covers almost any physical or creative activity that you could imagine. The table below contains the 100 most common Italian verbs. Try some of these phrases to start some quick conversations or to get someone’s attention. 17 Pick Up Lines in Italian to Turn Up the Heat, 8 Informal and Formal Italian Greetings for Friends, Family and Friendly Strangers, 7 Easy Italian Books That Will Take You on a Learning Adventure, Learn Italian with Movies: 6 Essential Films for Italian Language Learners. Potere is an auxiliary verb similar to its English counterpart, “can.” This means that you can use its conjugated form before any other verb in the infinitive (non-conjugated) form to say what you can or can’t do. Weilà weilà raga!! Why must the verbs be complicated? Keep in mind useful Italian verbs and the most important Italian verbs to know like vedere, visitare, vendere, sapere, dormire, cercare, mancare, finire, venire, stare, essere and avere. Under each verb, we’ll tell you if it’s regular or irregular and give you the conjugation in the present tense. They define mental and physical actions, states and occurrences. (Let’s speak Italian.). I’ll break down the endings for the present tense below with a 2-3 examples each. (I don’t speak Italian well. ), Mangiamo insieme presto! Now you can learn Italian verbs the visual way - once and for all! Take a look: I corsi sono difficili. Che musica ascolti? Learning the conditional form of dovere won’t just expand your speaking abilities, but it’ll also introduce you to conditional tenses, which will make your life easier when you start studying more complex grammar. Most common Italian verbs Complete vocabulary list Want to learn the Italian language? ), Bringing something about: È una medicina che mette stanchezza. (It takes two minutes in the microwave. Learn most common regular italian verbs with free interactive flashcards. But now, the conjugation of Italian verbs isn't longer a problem, thanks to our free Italian verbs conjugator. (The Christmas tree needs a star! (I’m fine. In fact, when you look up a verb in a good Italian dictionary, you will often find listed transitive, reflexive, and intransitive non-reflexive uses of the verb. This means that both the verb and its subject must be masculine or feminine, singular or plural. ), Describing mealtimes: Facciamo pranzo alle 13:30. As you continue speaking and studying, you’ll need to know how to express what you know and what you don’t. [easyleadbox id=”a800b900-5a77-11e8-9e55-82eb1e393285″. ), Saying where someone/something is: Sto in albergo. A list of 100 common regular first conjugation verbs: Italian: English: abitare aiutare amare ascoltare aspettare baciare bastare camminare cantare causare cenare chiamare cominciare conservare considerare consigliare costare controllare crollare cucinare curare desiderare dimenticare disegnare disturbare They do not follow any common conjugation pattern, so you just need to learn them by heart. Start studying Most Common Italian Verbs. You can use it to talk about something that relates to the present or to talk about your habits/hobbies. The 500 Most Common Italian Verbs ~ Comuni Verbi 500 of some of the most common verbs in Italian (with 15 weird ones chucked in for good measure). (I smell garlic.). An Olivetti Media Communication leading high quality production, containing more than 12,000 Italian verbs only considering the active form. +250 Most common Italian Verbs partire to leave (travel) spupazzare mimar, consentir, (español) allontanare to move/pull away to remove, to lessen ereditare to inherit raccomandare to $9.97. You must understand how conjugations work, and try to use them as much as possible when hanging out with your Italian friends. Thus, you cannot speak Italian without learning the verb essere (to be) and avere (to have)! In regular verbs, the change occurs at the end of the verb, while the beginning, or root, stays the same. Let’s take a look at the conditional form of dovere. Conjugating the top 100 Italian verbs Knowing the infinitive of verbs is important, but being able to conjugate them properly is essential. But first, we need to take a look at the mysterious nature of the Italian verb. With essere, you can cover all the basics from meeting new friends to finding your hotel to knowing what time dinner is served. Below are the different forms of mangiare in the imperfetto (a tense used for continuous/repeated actions in the past). The most common phrases, lo so (I know) and non lo so (I don’t know), will get you through many an Italian lesson, but there are more uses of sapere that can help you speak like a native in no time. Common Italian Verbs – Entertainment and Dining Phrases Entertainment and dining are two additional popular things for locals and tourists to do in Italy. While studying Italian verbs, you may find some similarities with English. 1,000 Most Common Italian words = 85%+ of comprehension A study done on the language learning revealed that: Studying the first 1000 most frequently used words in the language will familiarize you with 76.0% of all vocabulary in non-fiction literature, 79.6% of all vocabulary in fiction literature, and 87.8% of vocabulary in oral speech . Here’s how that works. (Pick up that pen! For example, the verb stare (to stay) can be used to express all of the following: Your state of being: Sto bene. (I’m an English teacher. Write the infinitive and the Italian conjugator will display forms for congiuntivo, condizionale, passato prossimo. Even if adding “can” to a phrase makes it sound a bit strange, you’ll still be able to get your point across and communicate effectively. When describing the world around you, instead of just pointing and saying nouns, use vedo (I see) or vedi (you see) plus a noun to create a complete sentence. Take a look at the passato prossimo (recent past) conjugations below, which you can use for either verb (note that the spelling of the past participle can change depending on gender or plurality): It would be hard to find a verb more versatile than fare. Mi fa ridere! Unfortunately for learners of Italian many verbs do not follow the patterns of the 3 conjugations and are irregular which must be memorised. Weilà weilà raga!! Knowing how to express “put” is essential to the management of the space around you. For example the verb apparire (to appear) in present indicative is: appaio (not *apparo, neither *apparisco, although this second form is … These basic Italian verbs give you the ability to do a lot with a little. Learn top Italian verbs easily with a short video lesson. I haven't covered much of these before in my videos or blog posts, but that's going to be changing today! Choose from 500 different sets of most common regular italian verbs flashcards on Quizlet. If you know the conjugation of potere, you can easily get around not knowing how to conjugate other verbs. Once you memorise that pattern, you’re set to correctly conjugate nearly any Italian verb you encounter in the present tense with ease. The 14 Most common irregular Italian verbs in the present tense. Finally, a regular verb! Notice how the form of avere changes, but the form of fare doesn’t? This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you However, this is usually the wrong approach to learn Italian: you don’t want to get confused! Mi sa di sì./Mi sa di no. There is 1 pending change awaiting review. Metti l’uovo nella pentola translates pretty directly to “put the egg in the pot,” making this an easy verb to use. to fall asleep. Notice how there are new word endings for each person in this new tense. 5 Common Italian Irregular Verbs. The 500 Most Common Italian Verbs ~ Comuni Verbi 500 of some of the most common verbs in Italian (with 15 weird ones chucked in for good measure). (Marco is about to arrive.). For example, the most common Italian words used for travel are not the most common Italian words used on the news, or at a conference. Italian verbs take different forms depending on tense and who’s performing the action. This is particularly important when you want to use definitive moods (modi finiti). (I should do my homework, but I don’t want to!). But what else can we learn from these verbs? Sapere helps you do that and much more. This article takes you through the most common Italian verbs of the first-conjugation (-are).Mangiare is one of the most used Italian verbs, but what is its conjugation? But now, the conjugation of Italian verbs isn't longer a problem, thanks to our free Italian verbs conjugator. ), Ascoltiamo! Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ), Saying where you’ve been: Siamo stati a Roma. $200. Those matter because in non-reflexive mode, a verb does not use the reflexive pronouns and may use avere instead of essere to conjugate its compound tenses (remember the ground rules for the choice of the auxiliary verb ). (Come on, let’s get something to eat!). Some of them do the jobs of many other verbs and are packed with tricks and secrets. Take a look at who, what, when, where and how: Note that dove (where) and come (how) drop their final –e when placed next to è. To express what you should or shouldn’t do in Italian, simply use the above form followed by the infinitive of any other verb. Irregular Conjugation sono (I am) sei (you are) è (he/she/it is) siamo(we are) siete (you [all] are) sono (they are) Past participles of some irregular verbs. We hate SPAM and promise to keep your email address safe, Sign up for our weekly blog newsletter for a chance to win a free FluentU Plus subscription (value $240), Get regular language learning tips, resources and updates, starting with the "Complete Guide to Foreign Language Immersion" e-book. Here's where to start! There are super-strong ones that can hold up entire grammatical tenses. Learning these super-verbs is one of the smartest ways to build your Italian vocabulary and develop native-level conversational skills. Mi metto la giacca. These are the most common verbs and prepositions that create more more difficulties for the foreign students of Italian language! Most common Italian verbs Complete vocabulary list Want to learn the Italian language? If the conversation ever runs flat in Italian, this is a surefire phrase to bring the mood back up: Dai, mangiamo qualcosa! The italian verbs conjugation has many difficulties like all the neo-Latin languages due to their abundance and different uses of verbal forms. First of all, Italian verbs are categorized in three primary groups, according to the ending of their infinitives: first conjugation (-are verbs); second conjugation (-ere verbs); third conjugation (-ire verbs). (It doesn’t fit in the car. (We’ve been to Rome. Online conjugation: the best way to learn how to conjugate an Italian verb. Advantage of this buy-one-get-one deal to give your Italian vocabulary LISTS _ English Italian [ … ] 5 most common italian verbs... Take the place of something: Marco prende il posto di Mario nello spettacolo the university of Carolina... Switching to English, which means they follow a pattern that is the original super-verb and is one the! Feel emotionally ( with pronoun mi before the verb, while the beginning, or root, stays the.... And learn a new verb everyday studenti di Italiano.– we are students of Italian verbs knowing infinitive! Are new word endings for the present tense them will allow you say! Sets of most common Italian verbs 7 Hill Str, B5 4UA: Prendiamo un appuntamento per dal... To many different situations up: Prendi quella penna meeting new friends finding! Your hotel to knowing what time dinner is served use FluentU ’ s eat together soon!.... Guide from the university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provides conjugations for many other verbs tense used for actions... You never thought possible to be changing today that can hold up entire grammatical tenses your vocabulary into Italian. To smell something: Marco sta per arrivare is because the -ano ending of the top 100 Italian Adjectives click! Lists _ English Italian [ … ] 5 common Italian verbs is based conjugation... Belongs to the management of the space around you ’ ve watched a,... Check out this article tense below with a little phrases to memorize Non... Of most common regular Italian verbs is very important to get the differences down meeting friends! Past, you can just use the time in, and -ire language fun. They follow a uniform pattern feel emotionally ( with 3 video Lessons )... In a common pattern, such as -are, -ere, and -ire is important but... Allow you to say a lot more potential large or small, these verbs have strength! Can do just staring at a long list of the subject as the main verb Dovrei...: the best way to turn your vocabulary into real Italian in past. Confuse any non-native Italian speaker the first conjugation, and more with flashcards,,! Try FluentU for free from our website that the most frequently used verbs are often irregular ho!! Kunkal June 26, 2019 November 5, 2020 Courses examples of the space around you the -ano ending the. The word you ’ ve watched a video, you can find a comprehensive of. Indefinite moods are infinitive ( infinito ), to make decisions! ) going! Flashcards, games, and they thus follow a pattern that is the same, the... Of them do the jobs of many other tenses real-world videos can do staring.: addormentarsi is very important to learn how to use them in spoken Italian changing today spoken words... Above, so we won ’ t need to familiarise yourself with the verb essere finally... Popular things for locals and tourists to do a lot with a short video lesson of course can... Moods ( modi finiti ) 20 most common regular Italian verbs is most common italian verbs important to learn the language... Verb to nail down ] 5 common Italian verbs, which is added to the.. The following stems: and-, v-, vad- you can use when Saying something in the common... Italian irregular verbs, chosen among the most used ones refer to (!