Hsüan-tsang Forges a Link Between China and IndiaOverviewThough Fa-hsien in the fifth century was the first Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to visit India, the trip by Hsüan-tsang more than two centuries later was equal if not greater in terms of historical significance. Hsuan Chuang University (HCU; Chinese: 玄奘大學; pinyin: Xuán Zhuǎng Dàxué) is a private Buddhist university in Xiangshan District, Hsinchu City, Taiwan. See pp. Thus they must be illusive, and yet they are experienced by a number of people. As the first seven of these arise on the basis of the eighth, they are called the transformed consciousnesses. This principle might be illustrated by the school’s favorite citation: “A seed produces a manifestation, For several decades, senior officials of the Buddhist Association of the Republic of China (BAROC) pressured the government to overturn these restrictions and allow a private Buddhist university similar to the Fu Jen Catholic University. Xuanzang reports that he trav… Though Buddhism had been the dominant religion in much of the Gangetic plains in the early part of the Christian era, Hsuan Tsang, traveling in India in the early years of the 7. th century, witnessed something quite different. Hsiian-tsang, our Buddhist Pausanias and Marco Polo combined, to whose travels from China across Central Asia to India and back in the second quarter of the seventh century a.d. we owe such ample … Hsuan-Tsang was a world-famous Chinese Budhdist Monk, traveler and scholar whose recorded accounts of India during his sixteen years long visit to the country is still considered as the greatest account of 7th century Indian history by any foreign traveler. Xuanzang Technical College was another working name for the planned institution. In both style and content, the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra symbolizes a superior advance over the earlier Lankavatara Sutra, a basic Faxiang School’s canonical text that sets forth quite a few hallmarks of Mahayana position, such as the eight consciousnesses and the tathagatagarbha (Womb of the Buddha-to-be). How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions While at Nalanda, Xuanzang also studied Sanskrit and Brahmana philosophy. Sarvastivadin sutras, Vinaya, sastras: 67 Finally comes the awareness of the objects of thought via sense perceptions and ideas. According to Thomas Watters, the total number of texts brought by Xuanzang from India to China is six hundred and fifty seven, enumerated as follows: Mahayanist sutras: 224 items These “germs” develop into form, feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness, collectively known as the Five Aggregates. The appellation of the school originated with the title of an important fourth- or fifth-century CE text of the school, the Yogacarabhumi-sastra. Introduction: The Unknown Hsuan-tsang; 1. Journey to the West is probably the most influential one ofthe four classic novels in the Chinese literature and surelythe best-known one on foreign lands. It is a story of imperial expansion as well as self- understanding and transcendence. Hsinchu was chosen as the school's location for its proximity to the Buddhist teachers resident in north Taiwan and for its cheap land prices relative to Taipei. Before 1990, the working group had reconciled itself to creating a technical college (which could be accredited) alongside an unaccredited seminary, in preparation for a time when the government might accredit it as a religious studies department. Hsuan-Tsang, Prajna-Deva, Jnana-Prabha Correspondence; A. Because this school maintains that no external reality exists, while retaining the position that knowledge exists, assuming knowledge itself is the object of consciousness. Reporter: Luo Laiming and Chen Ziqi. [Photo: from Yunan Pictorial] Ranvijay Sinha is an enthusiast of Chinese language. The Chung-hwa Fo Jian Bai Ke Quan Shu: Religious Affairs Committee of Foguangshan Buddhist Order , 1993. When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious sapience. Hsuan tsang reported that, at Nalanda University, the number of teachers was 1,500 and of learners 10,000. Tsang was fully ordained at twenty. The political thaw and economic boom of the 1980s and 1990s erased many of the obstacles facing the venture. Yogacara is also the original source for the theory of the three bodies of the Buddha, and greatly expands the notions of categories of elemental constructs. During the glorious days of Nalanda University, Hiuen Tsang came to study Buddhism and mysticism in India. Lan Ji-fu, ed. From the Chinese Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang; B. He crossed deserts, mountains, rivers and spent eighteen years before his Princeton University Library One Washington Road Princeton, NJ 08544-2098 USA (609) 258-1470 Then, sense impressions produce certain configurations in this insensibility that “perfumate” later impressions so that they appear consistent and regular. Such a notion is commonly referred to as “Mind Only.”. The monastery was constructed 50 years ago, by the local Chinese community in Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal. One name favored by the working group was Chung Hua University, chosen for its lack of explicit Buddhist content. Hsuan Tsang was also a great scholar. There were over ten thousand Mahayana monks there engaged in the study of the orthodox Buddhist canon as well as the Vedas, arithmetic, and medicine. Hsuan Chuang University (HCU; Chinese: 玄奘大學; pinyin: Xuán Zhuǎng Dàxué) is a private Buddhist university in Xiangshan District, Hsinchu City, Taiwan. Such beliefs were in absolute contradiction to the acosmic idealism of the Buddhist Yogacara, which evenly repelled the substantial entity of the ego and the objective existence of matter. Mahasangika sutras, sastras and Vinaya: 15 Yogacara is an alternative system of Buddhist logic. Hsuan Tsang was among a substantial number of Chinese scholars who visited India through the Silk Route. It was in this Temple that Xuanzang devoted the rest of his life to the translation of the Sanskrit works that he had brought back out of the wide west, assisted by a staff of more than twenty translators, all well-versed in the knowledge of Chinese, Sanskrit, and Buddhism itself. From the Uigur Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang; 3. Hsuan Tsang was born in Ho-nan province around the year 600 CE. For a time during the middle of the Tang Dynasty the Faxiang School achieved a high degree of eminence and popularity across China, but after the passing of Xuanzang and Kuiji the school swiftly declined. Upon his return to Chang’an in 645, Xuanzang brought back with him a great number of Sanskrit texts, of which he was able to translate only a small portion during the remainder of his lifetime. Dharmagupta sutras, Vinaya, sastras: 42 The character in question, 奘, has two pronunciations, one associated with its "bound" form, and the other with its unbound and stative-verb form; they have slightly different ranges of denotations. His rendition of the Mahayana-samparigraha-sastra (Compendium of the Great Vehicle) by Asanga provided a sound base for the Sanlun (Three-Treatise) School, which preceded the Faxiang School as the vehicle of Yogacara thought in China. It is … The Unknown Hsuan-Tsang. The cause and effect occur at one and the same time.”, It is the doctrine of consciousness or mind as the basis for so-called “external” objects that gave the Cittamatra (Mind Only) tradition its name. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997. According to this doctrine, sentient beings possess eight distinct layers of consciousness, the first five — the visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, olfactory consciousness, gustatory consciousness, and tactile consciousness — corresponding to the sense perceptions, the sixth discriminatory consciousness to the thinking mind, the seventh manas consciousness to the notion of ego, and the eighth alaya-consciousness to the repository of all the impressions from one’s past experiences. Lan Ji-fu, ed. Ranvijay is delivering a speech during an event of promoting Chinese and … Reality is to be viewed as an Idea or a Will. Lan Ji-fu, ed. In addition, the philosophy of this school, with its abstruse terminology and hairsplitting analysis of the mind and the senses, was too alien to be accepted by the practical-minded Chinese. Liao Zhong (了中) and named for the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, the school was promoted to university status in 2004. The school is in a semi-agricultural area on the outskirts of Hsinchu, next to Yuanpei University of Medical Technology and down the road from Chung Hua University. In China, it was established by Xuanzang and his principal pupil Kuiji who systematized the teaching of his masters recorded in two essential works: the Fa yuan i lin zhang (Fa-yuan i-lin-chang or Chapter on the Forest of Meanings in the Garden of Law) and the Cheng wei shi lun shu ji (Ch’eng wei-shih lun shu-chi or Notes on the Treatise on the Completion of Ideation Only). In line with these three elements of false imagination, right knowledge, and suchness is the three modes in which things respectively are: (1) the mere fictions of false imagination; (2) under certain conditions to relatively exist; and (3) in the perfect mode of being. He returned to China in 643, bringing with him precious manuscripts that he then translated to Chinese. Before 1985, the government of Taiwan maintained strict controls on private universities and, in particular, discouraged university-level religious education. The store consciousness must be purified of its subject-object duality and notions of false existence, and restored to its pure state tantamount to buddhahood, the Absolute Suchness, and the undifferentiated. Hsuan Tsang was also a great scholar. Since Kuiji aligned himself with this text as assuming the role of Xuanzang’s successor, the East Asian tradition has treated the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra as the pivotal exemplar of Xuanzang’s teachings. Following them, the school divided into two branches, the Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Logical Tradition) and the Agamanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Scriptural Tradition), with the former sub-school postulating the standpoints of the logician Dignaga (c. AD 480-540) and his successor, Dharmakirti (c. AD 600?-680?). When the glory of Nalanda University was at its peak, Hieun … Spatiotemporal determination can be elucidated on the analogy of dream experience, where a complete and surreal world is created with objects appearing to have spatiotemporal localization despite the fact that they do not exist apart from the mind which is cognizing them. Bapat, P. V., and K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, eds. In 2010 it was announced that HCU passed the re-evaluation (though several departments were closed) for the next five years. A "contest" was held to decide the name of the new school, but none of the hundreds of entries were used. Mahayanist sastras: 192 The flow of experiences could barely be a physical or material flow. 880-01 Da bo re bo luo mi duo jing. Juan di 256. The base consciousness is interpreted as the container of the karmic impressions or seeds, nourished by us beings in the process of our existence. He remained at the University of Nalanda for about five years. Apparently external objects are constituted by consciousness and do not exist apart from it. This work is else a dedication to Hsuan-tsang’s Alam Mater, the Nalanda Mahavihara, the imposing ruins of which can be see even today. Instead of feeling deterred from his long-standing dream, Xuanzang is said to have experienced a vision that strengthened resolve. Hsuan-tsang traveled to India in … Such tensions can be seen not only in his personal legacies, which include the extremely popular Chinese novel based on his travels, Xiyouji (Journey to the West), but also in the career of scholastic Buddhism in China. (See Romanization systems for Chinese terms.). Xuanzang’s success in religious and philosophical disputes evidently aroused the attention of some Indian potentates, including the King of Assam and the poet-cum-dramatist king Harsha (r. 606-647), who was regarded as a Buddhist patron saint upon the throne like Ashoka and Kanishka of old. So illusive a force determines the world of difference and belongs to human nature, sprouting the erroneous notions of an I and a non-I. Nonetheless, if “idealism” denotes that subjects and objects are no more than a flow of experiences and perceptions, which are of the same nature, and these experiences, just as perceptions, are mental, then this could be called a form of “dynamic idealism.”. Sammitiya sutras, sastras and Vinaya: 15 Traditional sources report that Xuanzang’s arrival in Chang’an was greeted with an imperial audience and an offer of official position (which Xuanzang declined), followed by an assembly of all the Buddhist monks of the capital city, who accepted the manuscripts, relics, and statues brought back by the pilgrim and deposited them in the Temple of Great Happiness. While the former is characterized as Mahayana due to its central theme of emptiness, the latter might be considered to be semi-Mahayana to a point for three basic reasons: (1) the Yogacara remains realistic like the Abhidharma School; (2) it expounds the three vehicles side by side without being confined to the Bodhisattvayana; and (3) it does not accent the doctrine of Buddha nature. 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