Genesis 2:7). Egypt and Mesopotamia apparently produced little of literary or intellectual import in this period, and the widespread interest in new religions observable in the sources indicates a hunger for new means of spiritual fulfillment. Definition of hellenization in the Definitions.net dictionary. There is evidence of discussions between rabbis and Athenians, Alexandrians, Roman philosophers, and even the emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161); despite all of these discussions, only one rabbi, Elisha ben Abuyah (early 2nd century), appears to have embraced gnosticism, accepting certain esoteric religious dualistic views. Josephus held that the Pharisees and the other Jewish parties were philosophical schools, and some modern scholars have argued that the groupings were primarily along economic and social lines; but the chief distinctions among them were religious and go back well before the Maccabean revolt. Many of the anecdotes told about the rabbis have Socratic and Cynic parallels. During the Hellenistic period the priests were both the wealthiest class and the strongest political group among the Jews of Jerusalem. All of this was abetted by the polis and its official city cult, in which the Greek and the Near Eastern were in constant symbiosis. He was a philosopher and scriptural interpreter who lived in Alexandria from around 30 B.C. en.wiktionary.2016 [noun] Alternative spelling of [i]Hellenisation[/i] Show declension of Hellenization ( )) hellenization. The first large-scale conversions were conducted by John Hyrcanus and Aristobulus I, who in 130 and 103 bce, respectively, forced the people of Idumaea in southern Palestine and the people of Ituraea in northern Palestine to become Jews. Hellenism was a synthesis of Greek (Hellenic) culture with the native cultures of the Near East. In Palestine, no less than in the Diaspora, there were deviations from Pharisaic standards. They believed in the providential guidance of the universe, in angels, in reward and punishment in the world to come, and in resurrection of the dead, all of which were opposed by the Sadducees. This volume focuses on the role of Judaism, particularly that of Philo, and of Gnosticism, as two important forces shaping the response of early Christianity to the Hellenistic Greco-Roman culture of its time. Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe the spread of ancient Greek culture, and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greece or in its sphere of influence.It is mainly used to describe the spread of Hellenistic civilization during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great of Macedon. It has been argued, however, that all Judaism after the conquests of Alexander was Hellenistic Judaism. The Greek emphasis on physical culture and on beauty also spread throughout the Near East. What does hellenization mean? What is the definition of Hellenization? didache "teaching" written in greek/christian liturgy practices. In 107 BC the Samaritans are attacked again. As Hellenism penetrated each new region, an amalgamation of the Hellenistic with the native took place, and this phenomenon resulted in the many different manifestations of Hellenistic culture observable in the Near East over many centuries. The time was ripe for a new cultural movement. This has been most discussed with regard to Hellenization and the so-called Hellenistic reform preceding the Maccabean revolt. Dieser Artikel auf Deutch. Alexander the Great and Hellenization by Larry R Thornton, ThD Professor, Calvary Baptist Theological Seminary Historians have differed in their presentations and evaluations of Alex ander the Great and his relation to Hellenism. Critics who use this argument often make it sound as if the life and culture of Jesus and the first disciples was untouched by Hellenism, and that only in later centuries was it allowed to 'infect' the church. The Near East as a whole, and Palestine and its Jewish residents more particularly, first came under Aegean influence in the fourteenth century BCE. After being conquered by Alexander the Great (332 bce), Palestine became part of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt, the policy of which was to permit the Jews considerable cultural and religious freedom. ... which forgets that one of the most radical revelations of the New Testament is that the Jewish God is now available to everyone without their having to first become Jewish, either in practice or in thinking. They similarly rejected the inspiration of the prophetic books of the Bible, as well as the Pharisaic beliefs in angels, rewards and punishments in the world to come, providential governance of human events, and resurrection of the dead. The period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and Kingdoms in A… Yet there is evidence that the ruthlessness exhibited by the Hasmoneans toward the Greek cities of Palestine had political rather than cultural origins and that in fact they were fighting for personal power no less than for the Torah. Thus the peoples of the defeated Persian Empire could offer no more resistance to the Hellenic cultural onslaught than they had to the Macedonian army. In their exegesis and interpretation of this oral tradition, particularly under the rabbi Hillel (1st century bce–1st century ce), the Pharisees were flexible, and their regard for the public won them considerable support. It had, however, entered too deeply into the flesh to be entirely eradicated, though the newly aroused spirit proved an efficient control. Greek culture had by this time developed to its pinnacle. Hi there! Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. At the other extreme was a stubborn adherence to the rules imposed by Ezra. The Sadducees. The chief support for the Pharisees came from the lower classes, whether in the country or in the city. Some of the 29 Greek cities of Palestine attained a high level of Hellenistic culture. In the early part of the 2nd century bce, Hellenizing Jews took control of the high priesthood itself. Home › Essays › Ancient Civilization › The Seeds of Christianity: The Hellenization of Judaism. The eagerness of the Pharisees to win converts is attested in The Gospel According to Matthew (23:15), which states that the Pharisees would “traverse sea and land to make a single proselyte.” To be sure, some of the proselytes, according to Josephus, did return to their pagan ways, but the majority apparently remained true to their new religion. With tragic wit, the Jews named him Epimanes, or "the madman," when it became apparent that his policies were violently anti-Jewish. Hellenization was the spread of Greek culture and the assimilation into Greek culture of non-Greek peoples. The religion of the Greeks was fused with that of the natives in many different forms and local cults. Concurrently, native Near Eastern civilizations had run their course and were on the decline. The Hellenization of Christianity. As each person has pointed out already, the appearance of hellenization at the hands of Alexander the Great, placed the Jewish people into a new role. ‘Alexander had paved the way, and so had the Hellenization of most Early Judaism.’ ‘A few examples will have to suffice to explain how the Hellenization of the known world affected Early Judaism.’ Hellenization Begins with Alexander the Great (334-323 BCE), king of the large territorial state of Macedonia, who takes over the old Persian empire and beyond, introduces Hellenistic (Greek) rule and values throughout his new lands, but keeps eastern ideas of kingship. The Septuagint, made for the Jews of the Dispersion, early won its way to authority even in Palestine, where Aramaic had displaced Hebrew, which thus became a dead language known only to a few. To associate the rabbis with urbanization seems a distortion. Sacraments. (noun) Dictionary ! Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc. His son and especially his grandsons became ardent Hellenists. Judaism views the physical body as a partner with the soul. More specifically, the Jewish people viewed their culture from the perspective of the Old Testament covenant, and rightly heeded the advice of the prophets who warned that pagan influence risked national destruction (Scott, 118-119). Yet the indigenous peoples did not simply absorb the Hellenic and the Hellenistic; they redefined and reinterpreted their own traditional cultures in light of the “modern” civilization in which they now found themselves. Meaning of hellenization. English Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. The wealthiest of the priests were the members of the Oniad family, who held the hereditary office of high priest until they were replaced by the Hasmoneans; the Temple that they supervised also functioned as a bank, where the wealth of the Temple was stored and where private individuals also deposited their money. Such numbers represent a considerable increase from previous eras and must have included large numbers of proselytes. Antiochus III, coin, late 3rd–early 2nd century. Word used to express the assimilation, especially by the Jews, of Greek speech, manners, and culture, from the fourth century B.C. On the other hand, supposed differences between Alexandrian and Palestinian Judaism are not as great as had been formerly thought. People from the surrounding areas, streaming into the cities, quickly gained the legal and economic advantages afforded by citizenship in the polis-‑exemption from certain customs and duties and participation in the municipal government. (noun) Tobiad definition is - a member of a Jewish party of the Maccabean period favoring the Hellenization of the Jews. It was a notable trait of ancient Greek civilization, an approach to other cultures that was not merely invasive or dominant but transformative. HELLENISM; HELLENIST. Instead, they included groups we now know of as Assyrians, Egyptians, Jews, Arabs, and Armenians among others. That the Maccabean ruler John Hyrcanus I (reigned 135–104 bce) broke with them and that Josephus set their number at merely “more than 6,000” at the time of King Herod indicates that they were less numerous and less influential than Josephus would have his readers believe. Alexander passed through Palestine first on his way to Gaza during his campaign to subjugate the Phoenician coast and then on his way from Egypt to Babylonia. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. Upon the Jews' return from exile in Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national identity by following the law closely. At his death his generals succeed him—e.g. The institutions of the Greek way of life were opened to all who wished to participate. When in 198 Palestine was conquered by King Antiochus III (reigned 223–187 bce) of the Syrian Seleucid dynasty, the Jews were treated even more liberally, being granted a charter to govern themselves by their own constitution—namely, the Torah. Encyclopedias and Dictionaries . Hellenization Definition from Encyclopedia Dictionaries & Glossaries. Religiously more circumscribed than the Pharisees, they rejected the idea of a revealed oral interpretation of the Torah, even though they had their own tradition, the sefer gezerot (“book of decrees” or “decisions”). Myths Origin of story: Raised by wolves Romulus kills Remus. Answer: Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with. Traditionally, “Hellenistic Judaism” was a designation for Judaism in the Greek-speaking world, including those Jews who spoke Greek and adopted (to some extent) a Greek way of life. Humanism had resulted from the primacy attributed to reason in Greek thought. Philo was an example of the intense Hellenization of Judaism. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Thus the sacred literature of the Jews was for practical purposes Greek. 87 relations. The antipathy was reciprocated, for in the same passage in the Babylonian Talmud (the annotations and interpretations of the Oral Law compiled by Babylonian Jewish scholars in the 5th century ce) are added the words, “Greater is the hatred wherewith the ʿamme ha-aretz hate the scholar than the hatred wherewith the heathens hate Israel.” That there was social mobility, however, is clear from the Talmudic dictum, “Heed the sons of the ʿamme ha-aretz, for they will be the living source of the Torah.”. The Seeds of Christianity: The Hellenization of Judaism By snowconenyc on 2014-08-09 • ( 0). What does hellenization mean? (North America) Alternative spelling of Hellenisation. Example sentences with "Hellenization", translation memory. Copyright © 2002-2020 My Jewish Learning. The process and the product of the canonization of the Bible became the basis for a varied tradition of interpretation. the spread of greek culture and ideas. 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