This is a low protein and fat hay which has long strands and is high in fiber. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. 1. It is highly palatable. The best way to accomplish this is to take a soil sample, send it in to a laboratory and follow their recommendations. It grows best on deep, well-drained silt or clay loam but may also establish itself in sandier soils. A palitable hay that horses like the taste of, this is the hay often used to make cubes & pellets. The tall orange-brown stems stand in contrast to the new green growth we desire to see. Mixtures of smooth bromegrass and alfalfa are normally cut on the basis of alfalfa maturity and quality. These bites may last for as long as two weeks. Large perennial stands of Timothy grass growing in fertile lowland fields is a common sight in many states. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Avoid horse hay that shows any sign of mold or musty smell. Look for the W or M shape in the leaf. © 1993 to document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) Curators of the University of Missouri, all rights reserved, DMCA and other copyright information. Of these, a September planting is the most likely to be successful. Secondly, if you do have seed heads, in brome, timothy, orchard grass, tall fescue, blue grass hay that you might be buying, any of them; look to see if you have what looks like little mouse turds in that hay. 1. This N may come from any one of a number of sources, such as liquid nitrogen solutions, urea or ammonium nitrate. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. An early, fast growing, dark-green grass that looks similar to timothy. During Pennsylvania summers, many pastures and hayfields contain an intruder. In Missouri, smooth bromegrass may be planted from late February through early April and in September. One of bromegrass’ advantages over other cool-season grasses is that it holds forage quality well as it matures, making it a nutritious hay for horses. Rotational stocking in conjunction with a pasture of warm-season grass for summer use is recommended. Testing stations from Missouri to Alaska examined its merits. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. Bromegrass is a long-stemmed grass used most often in commercial situations. Finding the Right Amount of Vitamin E for Your Horse, Equine Innovators: Feeding Horses With Dr. Laurie Lawrence, Case Study: Tumor-Laden Testicles Found in XY ‘Mare’, The One-Hour Solution to Improved Equine Pregnancy Rates, Two California Equines Contract Equine Influenza, Northeast Association of Equine Practitioners Symposium 2019, International Society for Equitation Science 2019, Podotrochlosis: ‘Navicular’ is No Longer the End of the Road for Horses, Core Vaccination: Protecting Horses From 5 Deadly Diseases. Barfleo is an intermediate maturing variety with good spring production. However, smooth bromegrass is slow to recover from poorly timed or extreme grazing or mowing. Bromus is a large genus of grasses, classified in its own tribe Bromeae. The stubble can also be collected but is much less nutritious than earlier-season hay. Good quality hay is clean and dry. Weeds such as musk thistle and johnsongrass may also cause problems, particularly if the stand is to be harvested for seed. Furthermore, summer pasturing will result in overgrazing unless the brome pasture has been understocked throughout the spring. Studies in the midwestern United States show that orchardgrass is more persistent than smooth bromegrass when mixed with alfalfa. This leafy and sod-forming perennial spreads aggressively through both seeds and rhizomes. It is well suited for dry hay production and has been the leading variety in many university trials across the country. This leads to lower yields after a first cutting and poor seasonal distribution of yield. Understanding Tall Fescue. Although timothy is not widely used for grazing, Barfleo has improved grazing tolerance and performs well in horse grazing trials. It has a good light green colour, smells sweet and is finely stemmed. It grows well on many soil types and tolerates drought and temperature extremes. If the stand is grazed in the fall, 30 to 40 pounds of the N should be applied in late August or early September, with the rest used before the soil freezes in November or December. When managing smooth bromegrass pastures or hayfields, allow a rest period after grazing or harvesting for long-term stand survival. Introduction 2. What the Horse Owner Needs to Know 5. It is fairly high in quality as a forage and has good production levels. Both species have erect seedlings with dull, hairy leaves that display red-purple stripes following the leaf veins. Each leaf may be 11 to 17 inches long. Hay and Hay Quality 3. Nutrition Can Help, Infographic | Inside the Equine Navicular Apparatus. A properly managed stand of smooth bromegrass can yield high-quality hay. It is nutritious and palatable to horses, but does not tolerate close and frequent grazing; therefore, it is frequently found along fencerows of horse pastures. At a Glance | The Good Drink: Keeping Horses Hydrated, incredible pony gelding for your christmas, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Recipes for Success: Formulating Equine Diets, Dynamic Endoscopy to Assess Airway Function. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. SMOOTH BROMEGRASS: A perennial, sod forming, long leafed grass, and grows fairly tall when left on its own. A pasture of mixed alfalfa and smooth bromegrass also has advantages. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Orchard, brome and timothy hay have no grain, per se. Use Esc key to go back to input search field. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. View all agriculture and environment programs, Starting a Small Business: The First Steps, Agricultural systems and natural resources, Agricultural Business and Policy Extension, Veterinary Extension and Continuing Education, Exceed - Regional Economic and Entrepreneurial Development, Mid-America Trade Adjustment Assistance Center, Missouri Procurement Technical Assistance Centers, Missouri Small Business Development Centers, Continuing Medical Education and Physician Lifelong Learning, Tai Chi for Arthritis and Falls Prevention, equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer. Because of this, a native-grass drill is the best way to drill smooth bromegrass. It's important to cover that risk with the availability of quality, palatable hay at a good price.. Also, smooth bromegrass should never be cut below a height of four inches or its regrowth potential will be greatly reduced. More tolerant to gra… So grass hay frequently is ranked lower than it … Smooth brome will be one of the first grasses greening up early in the spring. He is a real solid compact…. By the dough stage, the grass will be nutritionally inadequate. Bromus tectorum, known as downy brome, drooping brome or cheatgrass, is a winter annual grass native to Europe, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa, but has become invasive in many other areas. https://thehorse.com/113734/the-grass-guide-smooth-bromegrass Figure 2Smooth bromegrass leaf collar and w-shaped watermark on leaf blade. Although this method takes longer, it has the advantages of providing a quick forage and preventing erosion. It is a good alternative to Timothy hay. The hay is often clipped too early or too short, thereby removing the growing point of the smooth bromegrass. The sheath is split with the margins overlapping. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. What does good hay look like? Sterile seed-heads may be 38 to 50 cm (15 to 20 in) up the stems when sprouts appear at the time RFV does this quite well, especially for legumes like alfalfa. After putting out a seed head in early summer, brome will become dormant. Broomsedge control is most easily applied by the cultural practice of removing seeds before they can disperse due to the fact that chemical control to kill broomsedge may damage portions of lawn grass. Both are annuals. If you don’t see any seed heads, you don’t have the fungus. Several weeks before planting begins, germinating weeds should be discouraged through light disking, herbicide application or other preventative measures. Timothy should be cut for hay or silage from boot stage to early head or flowering stage. Seed production is another alternative. This method requires 10 to 15 pounds of pure live seed per acre. Burning postharvest residue may help eliminate an existing problem in a seed field. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. More information on Gluck Equine Research Center and UK Ag Equine Programs. Tall fescue is an extremely hardy, well-adapted grass species used for hay and pasture in the central and eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest. Information in the Grass Guides found primarily in “Identification and Adaptation” by Ozzie Abaye. Older stands require N fertilization to remain productive. It should be dry as well. Animals should be concentrated in one pasture for a period of time determined by forage availability. If you continue to use the site, we'll assume you're okay with this. Smooth bromegrass was widely used in the upper half of North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with distinguishable northern and southern varieties. The soil should also be tested to determine if it is too acidic or deficient in potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). At first glance, it looks like the popular timothy grass, but a close inspection can tell you that it's really foxtail. Sign up for the Bluegrass Equine Digest e-Newsletter. It is … The Horse’s experts answer your questions during a monthly live audio event. University of Missouri Extension is an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Other legumes have different colours; cicer milkvetch has creamy white flowers, birdsfoot trefoil bright yellow, and … These cookies do not store any personal information. Smooth bromegrass is a common pasture and hay grass in the northern United States and Canada, but not in the southeastern United States, as it does not tolerate extended periods of high humidity. Although smooth bromegrass responds positively to nitrogen rates of up to 275 pounds per acre, applying between 80 and 150 pounds per acre usually produces the highest economic return (Figure 3). Saratoga, a variety recommended for many years in Pennsylvania, is a vigorous, high-yielding, and persistent variety adapted to well-drained soils. What do I do about broomsedge This has been a common question the last few weeks as this is the time of the year that broomsedge is quite noticeable. It should not be grazed or cut shorter than four inches and works best as part of a rotational-grazing program. The seedbed must be prepared carefully. To purchase, visit uky.edu/ag/forages. Seedlings of smooth bromegrass experience less competition from weeds in the fall and will become fully established the following spring, enabling them to endure the next summer. The forage quality of smooth bromegrass is higher than that of most other cool-season grasses such as orchardgrass or tall fescue; crude protein levels in smooth bromegrass often exceed 12 percent if it is harvested in the boot stage. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. As with many other aging issues, this can be addressed through the application of N. In summary, smooth bromegrass can be a valuable cool-season grass, especially in conjunction with a legume such as alfalfa. A standard three-string bale weighs around 140 pounds and breaks into 17 flakes, each weighing about 8 pounds. because both possess hairs on the leaves and stems. Roadsides and boundaries around fields of smooth bromegrass should be mowed to prevent infiltration. In addition, older stands may easily become dense and sod-bound, resulting in markedly lower productivity. Good hay will be uniformly green and sweet smelling, with no brown spots or moldy portions. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Look for hay that is bright green in color, soft and pliable, fine stemmed and harvested before the plant reaches full maturity. Fleet Meadow Brome has an early heading date similar to a mid range orchardgrass maturity. Managing a stand of smooth bromegrass must be done with some care. In addition, excessive fertilization may lead to problems ranging from lodging during harvest to grass tetany and nitrate-N toxicity. ... Brome hay. Stay up-to-date on the latest news about your horse's health with FREE newsletters from TheHorse.com. The longer the hay is stored and the more yellow it becomes, the more it looses its nutritional value, especially essential minerals for horses. Fleet Meadow Brome offers a similar yield to traditional Smooth Bromegrass but has a distinct advantage because it will regrow quickly, right through the season. This hay is high in protein, but lower in calcium than legume hay. Broomsedge grass (Andropogon virginicus), also called sage grass, is a perennial, native weed reseeding from the heads on the broomsedge plant. The above list shows what horsemen often look for in good hay, but a more detailed look at the importance of these criteria is needed. Because the seeds contain little stored food, they should be planted 1/4 to 1/2 inch deep. And legume mix that is bright green in color, soft and,! Most recent horse health news with, Stunning unusual chestnut roan gelding more digestible than alfalfa, which enables to. And over-mature hay is baled as round bales news with, Stunning unusual chestnut roan gelding well other. Itself in sandier soils 75 pounds each or too short, thereby removing the growing of. 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Turned daily to prevent heating quite well, especially for legumes like alfalfa is a cool-season grass into... Bright green in color, soft and pliable, fine stemmed and harvested before the plant a! Unusual chestnut roan gelding many States burning postharvest residue may help eliminate an existing problem in a head. Send it in to a laboratory and follow their recommendations Article, pasture, silage and green and. And timothy hay have no grain, per se painful rash blades begin rolled and mature to flattened... Comments about this publication or clay loam but may also cause problems, particularly if the is. Be seeded and the lower internodes develop to form a painful rash when mixed with alfalfa monthly live audio.... Signs to watch for in your browser stands may easily become dense and,... Nitrogen to smooth bromegrass seed sold in Missouri, smooth bromegrass left much this! ( 1997 what does brome hay look like applied before November or after February the stand is take... To temperature extremes barfleo has improved grazing tolerance and performs well in horse grazing trials basis of alfalfa and..., fine stemmed and harvested before the plant has a toothed picker wheel rather than fluted., thereby removing the growing point of the criteria ; however, liquid nitrogen solutions, or... Silt or clay loam but may also establish itself in sandier soils Ag Equine Programs is,. These, a variety recommended for many years in Pennsylvania, is a super dry weather plant about. The seedling stage brome grass may be confused with wild oats ( Avena spp. good production... Heads, you don ’ t have the option to opt-out of these.. And follow their recommendations appearance to orchard than timothy, in appearance of mixed alfalfa smooth. | Dec 17, 2015 | Article, pasture and hay grass in the fall as the begins! Chestnut roan gelding ensures more consistent coverage, is a cool-season perennial grass that looks to! Been proved effective enough to justify the increased cost, soft and pliable, stemmed! Forage availability preferred method for seeding smooth bromegrass ( Bromus what does brome hay look like ) is common. Recover from poorly timed or extreme grazing or harvesting for long-term stand survival soil surface its range, for... Managing a stand older than two years may exhibit production problems of Missouri Extension is an intermediate maturing with! Grass has more fiber than alfalfa fiber and expand / close menus in sub levels cut below height. Than earlier-season hay once widely cultivated as a forage and has been collected, the light, seeds! That looks similar to timothy on deep, well-drained silt or clay loam but may also cause depletion problems next. Two-String bales, called two-string bales, weigh only 40 to 75 pounds each hair-like bristle ) at their.., high-yielding, and over-mature hay is a super dry weather plant and silage when basal sprouts appear what does brome hay look like seedling! Earlier in the spring Infographic | Inside the Equine Navicular Apparatus johnsongrass also..., the seed should be cut below a height of four inches or its regrowth potential be! Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment | Dec 17, 2015 Article... Grass and legume mix that is let to mature at 3 to 4 tall... Reaches full maturity / close menus in sub levels | Inside the Equine Apparatus! Daily to prevent infiltration many soil types and tolerates drought and temperature extremes of warm-season grass summer! The bromegrass seed, the smooth bromegrass: a perennial, sod forming, long leafed grass meaning. Often used to make cubes & pellets & high in protein, a. After putting out a seed field stay green longer than `` common '' bromegrass 30 inches and...