27).Those visionary products, first the Apple II and Macintosh computersand then the iMac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, have revolutionized the personalcomputer and electronic device industry, changing the way people play andwork.In the next chapter of this text, which addresses leadership from a skillsperspective, intelligence is identified as a trait that significantly contributesto a leader’s acquisition of complex problem-solving skills and socialjudgment skills. To coerce means to influ-ence others to do something against their will and may include manipulatingpenalties and rewards in their work environment. Learning objec-tives, multimedia links, discussion questions, and SAGE journal articles helpstudents study and reinforce the most important material. Taxonomic efforts in the description of leader behavior: A synthesis and functional interpretation. In addition to thewriting style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly. These functions are still representative of the field of man-agement today.In a book that compared the functions of management with the functions ofleadership, Kotter (1990) argued that the functions of the two are quite dis-similar (Figure 1.2). Leaders who use coercion areinterested in their own goals and seldom are interested in the wants andneeds of followers. ), Current studies in social psychology (pp. Many others are in the same position. In this book, we describeeach theory and then explain how the theory can be used in real situations.Leadership Defined______________________________There are many ways to finish the sentence “Leadership is . . .” In fact, asStogdill (1974, p. 7) pointed out in a review of leadership research, there arealmost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people whohave tried to define it. An individual with leadership traitswho was a leader in one situation might not be a leader in another situation.Rather than being a quality that individuals possess, leadership wasreconceptualized as a relationship between people in a social situation.Personal factors related to leadership continued to be important, butresearchers contended that these factors were to be considered as relative tothe requirements of the situation.The trait approach has generated much interest among researchers for itsexplanation of how traits influence leadership (Bryman, 1992). (Eds.). By takinga closer look at each of these reviews, we can obtain a clearer picture of howindividuals’ traits contribute to the leadership process.Stogdill’s first survey identified a group of important leadership traits thatwere related to how individuals in various groups became leaders. Based on thesecomponents, the following definition of leadership is used in this text: Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.Defining leadership as a process means that it is not a trait or characteristicthat resides in the leader, but rather a transactional event that occursbetween the leader and the followers. Charisma and leadership in organizations. New research has been added throughout the book as xvii. Behavioral Approach 71Description 71The Ohio State Studies 72The University of Michigan Studies 73Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid 74 Authority–Compliance (9,1) 75, Country-Club Management (1,9) 75 Impoverished Management (1,1) 75 Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) 76 Team Management (9,9) 77Paternalism/Maternalism 77Opportunism 77How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? From their findings, the authors arguedstrongly that traits could be used to make discriminations consistently acrosssituations between leaders and nonleaders.Both of these studies were conducted during periods in American historywhere male leadership was prevalent in most aspects of business and society.In Chapter 15, we explore more contemporary research regarding the role ofgender in leadership, and we look at whether traits such as masculinity anddominance still bear out as important factors in distinguishing betweenleaders and nonleaders.Yet another review argues for the importance of leadership traits: Kirkpatrickand Locke (1991, p. 59) contended that “it is unequivocally clear that leadersare not like other people.” From a qualitative synthesis of earlier research,Kirkpatrick and Locke postulated that leaders differ from nonleaders on sixtraits: drive, motivation, integrity, confidence, cognitive ability, and taskknowledge. In our discussions ofleadership, coercive people are not used as models of ideal leadership. Determination is the desire to getthe job done and includes characteristics such as initiative, persistence, Political Leadership  Steve Jobs, Chapter 2 Trait Approach   25dominance, and drive. The test banks, which have beenexpanded for this edition, include multiple-choice and true/false questionsto test comprehension, as well as essay questions that ask students to applythe material. Among these emerging leadership approaches are • authentic leadership, in which the authenticity of leaders and their leadership is emphasized; • spiritual leadership, which focuses on leadership that utilizes values and sense of calling and membership to motivate followers;  The Future of Leadership   Working Across Generations, Chapter 1 Introduction   5 • servant leadership, which puts the leader in the role of servant, who utilizes “caring principles” to focus on followers’ needs to help these followers become more autonomous, knowledge- able, and like servants themselves; and • adaptive leadership, in which leaders encourage followers to adapt by confronting and solving problems, challenges, and changes. 97Strengths 98Criticisms 99Application 102Case Studies 103Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels 103Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening? In essence, my purpose is to explore howleadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.NEW TO THIS EDITION New to this volume is a chapter on adaptive leadership, which examines thenature of adaptive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it works. A course cartridgeincludes assets found on the Instructor Teaching Site and the Student StudySite, as well as a bonus quiz for each chapter in the book—all in an easy-to-upload package. Being similar to the prototype makes leaders attractive to the groupand gives them influence with the group.The leadership approaches we discuss in the subsequent chapters of thisbook apply equally to assigned leadership and emergent leadership. 3–8), by J. P. Kotter, 1990, New York: Free Press.Leadership emergence may also be affected by gender-biased perceptions.In a study of 40 mixed-sex college groups, Watson and Hoffman (2004)found that women who were urged to persuade their task groups to adopthigh-quality decisions succeeded with the same frequency as men with iden-tical instructions. (1991). Adaptive Leadership 257Description 257Adaptive Leadership Defined 258A Model of Adaptive Leadership 260Situational Challenges 261Leader Behaviors 263Adaptive Work 273How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? The theories that were developed were called “greatman” theories because they focused on identifying the innate qualities andcharacteristics possessed by great social, political, and military leaders (e.g.,Catherine the Great, Mohandas Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln,Joan of Arc, and Napoleon Bonaparte). People havepower when they have the ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes, andcourses of action. Situational Approach 93Description 93Leadership Styles 94Development Levels 96How Does the Situational Approach Work? Position powerincludes legitimate, reward, coercive, and information power (Table 1.2).Personal power is the influence capacity a leader derives from being seen byfollowers as likable and knowledgeable. • Influence. Focus on the Inner Theatre 3012. Some leaders are more interested in their followers than others, while other leaders are more focused on what they can do for the company and the bottom line. From this perspective, leadership emergence is thedegree to which a person fits with the identity of the group as a whole. It is not restricted to theformally designated leader in a group.Leadership involves influence. Skills Approach 43Description 43Three-Skill Approach 44 Technical Skill 44 Human Skill 44 Conceptual Skill 45 Summary of the Three-Skill Approach 46Skills Model 47 Competencies 48 Individual Attributes 52 Leadership Outcomes 53 Career Experiences 54 Environmental Influences 55 Summary of the Skills Model 56How Does the Skills Approach Work? Another set of definitions conceptualizes leadership from a per-sonality perspective, which suggests that leadership is a combination of specialtraits or characteristics that some individuals possess. Specifically, in this book leadership is defined as a process whereby anindividual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.Because both leaders and followers are part of the leadership process, it isimportant to address issues that confront followers as well as issues thatconfront leaders. Their ability and competency to value what is best for their people, earns them the title of servant leader (Northouse, 2016). Leadership definitions still predomi- nantly delivered the message that leadership is getting followers to do what the leader wants done. Transformational Leadership 161  9. Leadership Seventh Edition, To Laurel, Lisa, Madison, Scott, and Kallie, Leadership Theory and Practice • Seventh Edition Peter g.Northouse Western Michigan University, For information: Copyright  2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. Servant Leadership 22511. Corporations seek those withleadership ability because they believe they bring special assets to theirorganizations and, ultimately, improve the bottom line. Leadership. Many people believe that leadership is a way to improvetheir personal, social, and professional lives. • Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the prac- tical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings. He began his efforts as a recent college graduate, traveling andworking in Cange, Haiti. For example, at a conference on lead- ership in 1927, leadership was defined as “the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation” (Moore, 1927, p. 124). Like you, I am most familiar with the U.S. Army. Equal opportunity is an annually training all soldiers have to go through. Preface   xixAudience This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory anda discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Success Essays is the right place to get it. 26Emotional intelligence 27How Does the situational approach 93Description 93Leadership Styles 94Development Levels 96How Does the Psychodynamic approach Work leadership a. 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